We analyze the reasons why companies issue units when they raise additional capital. We find that, in contrast to previous evidence, units are not offered to mitigate the agency conflicts or to signal security mispricing as they are predominantly issued during cold periods, in public rather than in rights offerings, and when the issue is underwritten. In addition, the results indicate that companies choose to offer units to increase their offer price flexibility and to underprice their seasoned equity offering so as to minimize the issue cost and the risk of failure of the issue. These results provide support for the net proceeds maximization hypothesis.
We deal with two-way contingency tables having ordered column categories. We use a row effects model wherein each interaction term is assumed to Nike Jordan 2012
have a multiplicative form involving a row effect parameter and a fixed column score. We propose a methodology to cluster row effects in order to simplify Air Jordan 9 Retro
the interaction structure and to enhance the interpretation of the model. Our method uses a product partition model with a suitable specification of the cohesion function, so that we can carry out our analysis on a collection of models of varying dimensions using a straightforward MCMC sampler. The methodology is illustrated with reference to simulated and real data Air Jordan 13 Retro sets.