This paper examines the interaction between the propensity to corrupt (PTC) and firm performance. Using a unique data set of Moscow traffic violations, I construct the PTC of every Muscovite with a driver׳s license. Next, I determine the PTC for the top management of 58,157 privately held firms. I find that a 1 standard deviation increase in management PTC corresponds to a Buy Jordan Shoes 3.6% increase in income diversion and that firms with corrupt management significantly outperform their counterparts. This study contributes to the literature that characterizes corruption using objective (instead of perception-based) measures and provides evidence regarding the positive aspects of corruption at the firm level.
Sodium (Na+) is toxic to most plants, but the molecular mechanisms of plant Na+ uptake and distribution remain largely unknown. Here we analyze Arabidopsis lines disrupted in the Na+ transporter AtHKT1. AtHKT1 is expressed in the root Nike Air Jordan 3
stele and leaf vasculature. athkt1 null plants exhibit lower root Na+ levels and are more salt resistant than wild-type in short-term root growth assays. Nike Jordan 3 In shoot tissues, however, athkt1 disruption produces higher Na+ levels, and athkt1 and athkt1/sos3 shoots are Na+-hypersensitive in long-term growth assays. Thus wild-type AtHKT1 controls root/shoot Na+ distribution and counteracts salt stress in leaves by reducing leaf Na+ accumulation.