We examine Rowntree’s 1900 primary poverty line methodology and suggest that he incorporated assumptions about the needs of children and the extent of scale economies that lead him to overestimate the numbers in primary poverty. We modify Rowntree’s primary poverty line using evidence from a contemporaneous household expenditure survey. The results suggest that the primary poverty head-count in York was considerably lower, at 5 to 6% of the population compared to Rowntree’s 10%. Taken in conjunction with Feinstein’s study of wages, this weakens the evidence for widespread poverty in Britain at the turn of the last century.
We have computed the properties of the zwitterionic form of glycine (NH+3CH2COO−) using ab initio Nike Air Jordan Shoes
molecular orbital theory. At the Hartree—Fock level, a Air Jordan Shoes Montreal
shallow minimum on the zwitterion potential energy surface may be located with certain basis sets that do not contain p-type polarization functions on hydrogen. The small barriers Womens Air Jordan Shoes
(<1 kcal/mol) for intramolecular proton transfer to nonionic glycine (NH2CH2COOH) disappear, however, when corrections are made for vibrational zero point energies or electronic correlation. The zwitterion is not a minimum at the Hartree—Fock level when the basis set contains hydrogen polarization functions nor when correlated wavefunctions are employed.